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SANSKRIT

The word “Sanskrit” literally means “highly elaborated”, “refined”. The Sanskrit is an ideal, perfect language able to express any word. That’s why it is called the sound vibrations of conscious or the language of the Nature.

The Sanskrit being the ancient Indian literary language is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. The ancient Indian languages are reflected in the monuments of literature of a few historical periods; these monuments differ chronologically, functionally and dialectally.

The Indo-European tribes that encroached on the Hindustan territory in the IInd - beginning of the Ist millennium BCE spoke several allied dialects. The western dialects must underlay the language of the Vedas (Veda - the sacral, true knowledge) called therefore the Vedic language.

The Vedic language represents the earliest period of the ancient Indian language. The scholars consider the XVth-Xth centuries BCE to be the period of its formation. There are four collections composed in the Vedic Sanskrit (Sa?hit?): the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Saamaveda and the Atharvaveda. Each of the texts includes later composing: the BraahmaNa, the AraNyaka - "appurtenant to the forest, forestall" and the UpaniSad - "the seat of a student by the side of the guru".

There are four addenda to the Vedas called Upaveda, with the famous treatise on the medicine Aayurveda amongst them - the Veda of health and life.

The Indian epics the Mahaabharata - "The Great War of the Bharata descendants" - and the Raamaayana - "Rama's Journey" - have been composed between the mid Ist millennimum BCE and the AD III-IV centuries. The ancient Indian language of these epics is called the epic Sanscrit. These literary monuments created through the centuries are of tremendous historical and cultural value. They have always been a well of knowledge about religion, philosophy, history, mythology of the ancient India and remain the inspiration for the modern Indian literature and art.

The epic monuments were connected with the Smriti genre ("memory" that also comprises the Puranas (Puraana - "ancient, old" - the recollection of myths and legends). It includes the Tantra ("rule, code" as well - a group of religious and esoteric works).

The Vedic literature is the expression of the integrity of life in Sanskrit. The Vedic literature reveals to people of any level of personal development and of any Dharma how to acquire the state of integrity of life - the life of 100% of the absolute and 100% of the relative, how to live in harmony with the Law of Nature. The Sanskrit is the key to this knowledge. With the help of the Sanskrit any person can discover the Vedas and find the quintessence of life.

The sound vibrations of the Sanskrit vitalize the features of the Pure conscious in a man and in his environment: the man begins to “vibrate” at unity with the Nature’s Law and live in harmony with the Laws of Nature.

The famous composer and editor of the Vedas Srila Vyasadeva wrote own all the Vedas, the Puranas, the Mahabharata and with that upon the mandate of his spiritual Guru Narada Muni bestowed to the world the Srimad-Bhagavatam which was the comment to his Vedanta-sutra - the philosophical composition reveal the nature of the Absolute Truth. The Sanskrit script is called "devanagari" which means the "demigod's hand". It is this script that according to legend is used on the higher planets of our Universe.

The most ancient treatise on the Sanscrit is Nirukta. In the IV century BCE the grammar of Panini known as Ashtadhyayi ("eight chapters" appeared. It contains more than 4000 grammar rules formulated aphoristically therefore difficult to comprehend without comments. Since that time the Sanscrit takes its classical form. The Panini's work consolidated the language and stopped the mutations typical for common languages, the Sanskrit started its continuous enrichment, improving and becoming more perfect in means of expression.

Grammatically the Sanskrit is characterized by rich recourses of word formation: 8 cases, 3 numbers of the nouns (singular, dual and plural), several hundreds of herbals and verbal forms, rich word forming, the coexistence of various functional styles in syntax - from the classical one to the nominal one which is rich of multiple compound nouns. The declensions in Sanskrit break up into different types of the nouns, those which end in a vowel or in a consonant, those monosyllabic and polysyllabic, those thematic and not etc.

The verbs are divided into groups according to the type of the conjugated stem. There are two voices: the "atmanepada" (the action is directed at oneself) and the "parasmaipada" (the action is directed at another object), which are more or less equivalent to the active and the passive voice (and the reflexive verbs as well) in Russian. There is a special passive voice in Sanskrit in addition to that.

The vocabulary is characterized by the wide synonymy (tens of words with the meaning "sun", "water", "light", "earth" and others), the polysemanticism of the words in common use and the unrestricted derivative word formation if needed.

he Sanskrit being an instrument of expression is incomparably more perfect than any of the modern languages. It unites both the means of communicating the philosophical ideas and the poetical script rich in its associative meanings.

The article refers to the lectures of Prof.A.V.Paribok